Available in a variety of sizes and colors of the highest grade
profesionally graded on color-clarity ,matrix (inclusions)quality&rarity.
Abstract sample determination by: PSU geology dept. (Martin Streck PHD)
XRD Analyses of turquoise from Oregon River
Generated by Perkins in project Project. Measurement Date / Time 9/23/2015 12:48:00 PM Raw Data Origin PHILIPS-binary (scan) (.RD) Scan Axis Gonio Start Position [°2Th.] 3.0050 End Position [°2Th.] 69.9950 Step Size [°2Th.] 0.0100 Scan Step Time [s] 2.0000 Scan Type Continuous Offset [°2Th.] 0.0000 Divergence Slit Type Fixed Divergence Slit Size [°] 1.0000 Specimen Length [mm] 10.00 Receiving Slit Size [mm] 0.2000 Measurement Temperature [°C] 0.00 Anode Material Cu K-Alpha1 [Å] 1.54060 K-Alpha2 [Å] 1.54443 K-Beta [Å] 1.39225 K-A2 / K-A1 Ratio 0.50000 Generator Settings 30 mA, 40 kV Diffractometer Type XPert MPD Diffractometer Number 1 Goniometer Radius [mm] 200.00 Dist. Focus-Diverg. Slit [mm] 91.00 Incident Beam Monochromator No Spinning No
by: Dr. Martin Streck PHD, professor with PSU geology dept. (07/14/2015)
IDENTIFIED: A complex natural pseudomorphic Turquoise With traces of Dolomite,(grape agate)-Chalcedony, (Tridimyte)-Gem Silica, Celadonite, Crisicola, and Faustite as well as several other contributory minerals depending on the region of Oregon the formation is located and extracted...
verified by: "Pacific gem labs" to be monoclinic and contain a complex variety of inclusions based on the host material which is rich in chalcedony in the form of (grape-agate), as well as gem-silca in the form of (tridymite) and aluminum in the form of (bauxite) which means the formation is "Aluminian" which makes the turquoise have a rich blue color when formed in the aluminian zones.
There is traces of copper (Cu) with heavy inclusions of Celadonite , chalcedony and dolomite as well as potassium (K2O) within the total matrix which shows anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally CuAl6(PO. 4)4(OH)84H. 2O (turquoise) & CaMg(CO3)2. Celadonite which formed during the filling phase within the volcanic rocks decomposure and oxidization of (Cu) causing a variety of colorations depending on the specific inclusions of base minerals other than the identified CuAl6(PO. 4)4(OH)84H. 2O. such as silver copper and iron.
|Properties: Turquoise Determined :09/23/2015|
|Chemical Classification||CuAl6(PO. 4)4(OH)84H. 2O.(K2O) Ar CaMg(Co3)2.|
|Mohs , Hardness||5 to 6|
|Specific Gravity||2.4 to 3.0 (variable because of porosity)|
|Symbol||Element||Atomic weight||Atoms||Mass percent|
As a secondary mineral, turquoise apparently forms by the action of percolating acidic aqueous solutions during the weathering and oxidation of pre-existing minerals. For example, the copper may come from primary copper sulfides such as chalcopyrite or from the secondary carbonates malachite or azurite; the aluminium may derive from feldspar; and the phosphorus from apatite. Climate factors appear to play an important role as turquoise is typically found in arid regions, filling or encrusting cavities and fractures in typically highly altered volcanic rocks, often with associated limonite and other iron oxides. In the American southwest turquoise is almost invariably associated with the weathering products of copper sulfide deposits in or around potassium feldspar bearing porphyritic intrusives. In some occurrencesalunite, potassium aluminium sulfate, is a prominent secondary mineral. Typically turquoise mineralization is restricted to a relatively shallow depth of less than 20 metres (66 ft), although it does occur along deeper fracture zones where secondary solutions have greater penetration or the depth to the water table is greater.
Although the features of turquoise occurrences are consistent with a secondary or supergene origin, some sources refer to a hypogene origin. The hypogene hypothesis holds that the aqueous solutions originate at significant depth, fromhydrothermal processes. Initially at high temperature, these solutions rise upward to surface layers, interacting with, and leaching essential elements from pre-existing minerals in the process. As the solutions cool, turquoise precipitates, lining cavities and fractures within the surrounding rock. This hypogene process is applicable to the original copper sulfide deposition; however, it is difficult to account for the many features of turquoise occurrences by a hypogene process. That said, there are reports of two phase fluid inclusions within turquoise grains that give elevated homogenization temperatures of 90 to 190 °C (194 to 374 °F) that require explanation.
The Turquoise Group of Minerals
The turquoise group consists of five monoclinic minerals with a similar chemical composition and structure. Included are turquoise, aheylite, chalcosiderite, faustite, and planerite. Their compositions
Turquoise is nearly always cryptocrystalline and massive and assumes no definite external shape. Crystals, even at the microscopic scale, are exceedingly rare. Typically the form is vein or fracture filling, nodular, or botryoidal in habit. Stalactiteforms have been reported. Turquoise may also pseudomorphously replace feldspar, apatite, other minerals, or even fossils.Odontolite is fossil bone or ivory that has been traditionally thought to have been altered by turquoise or similar phosphate minerals such as the iron phosphate vivianite. Intergrowth with other secondary copper minerals such as chrysocolla is also common. After examination the sample of turquoise has been graded and found to be of the highest quality and of extreme rarity in its inclusion of such complex mineralization and its variance in hardness and color.